Hashimoto's thyroiditis (hypothyroidism)

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease (also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis) is an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function, where the body's immune system creates antibodies that attack and inflame the thyroid.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism (or underactive thyroid or low thyroid) in the United States. Hypothyroidism is an endocrine disorder in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone called T4 (thyroxine), which is used to help the body use energy as well help maintain function of the brain, heart, muscle, and other organs.[1][2]

Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]

Symptoms of an underactive thyroid due to Hashimoto's include:

  • Weight gain
  • Hair loss (or thinning)
  • Fatigue
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Constipation
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Depression

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is usually diagnosed based on multiple examinations, often beginning with hypothyroid symptom evaluation. This can be accompanied by blood tests and ultrasound.

Blood tests indicating Hashimoto's disease include elevated levels of thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO), and elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Other lab testing can include Thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg), Free thyroxine (T4), or Free triiodothyronine (T3).

This might be followed by an ultrasound to confirm an enlarged thyroid gland, and other features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.[3]

Cellular hypothyroidism[edit | edit source]

Viral triggers of Hashimoto's[edit | edit source]

Hashimoto and sleep apnea[edit | edit source]

Treatments[edit | edit source]

Hashimoto's HLA risk alleles[edit | edit source]

Variations in several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex family of genes have been studied as possible risk factors for Hashimoto thyroiditis. Associations have been found between Hashimoto's disease and the following HLA alleles:[4][5][6]

  • C*07:04
  • DQB1*03:03
  • DRB1
  • DRB1*04:10

HLA risk alleles link ME/CFS and Hashimoto's[edit | edit source]

In a large 2020 study, CFS patients with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) risk alleles (C*07:04 and DQB1*03:03) were found to share the following autoimmune diseases, ordered by frequency:[4]

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  2. Psoriasis
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Alopecia areata
  5. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis viral infections commonly associated with ME/CFS[edit | edit source]

Studies suggesting a viral trigger for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and autoimune thyroiditis (AIT) that are also viruses commonly associated with ME/CFS.

Virologic and Immunologic Evidence Supporting an Association between HHV-6 and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Elisabetta Caselli, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Roberta Rizzo, Sabrina Benedetti, Debora Martorelli, Giorgio Trasforini, Enzo Cassai, Ettore C. degli Uberti, Dario Di Luca, Riccardo Dolcetti[7]

2012 Study using fine needle aspirates (FNA) thyroid biopsies found HHV-6 DNA in 28 of 34 (82%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and 3 of 28 (10%) controls.
Association of active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases

A Sultanova, M Cistjakovs, S Gravelsina, S Chapenko, S Roga, E Cunskis, Z Nora-Krukle, V Groma, I Ventina, M Murovska[8]

2017 A study comparing the involvement of HHV-6 infection between autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) patients and healthy controls. Thyroid gland biopsies confirmed active persistent HHV-6 infection in 18 of 44 (41%) AIT patients and 1 of 17 (6%) healthy controls.
Study of Epstein–Barr virus serological profile in Egyptian patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: A case-control study

Samir Naeim Assaad, Marwa Ahmed Meheissen, Eman Tayae Elsayed, Saher N. Alnakhal, Tarek M. Salema[4]

2020 This study included 60 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and 60 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Early Antigen (EA) was positive in 20 of 60 (33%) HT patients and 4 of 60 (7%) healthy controls, indicating a higher prevalence of active EBV in Hashimoto patients.

See also[edit | edit source]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Hashimoto's Thyroiditis". American Thyroid Association. Retrieved Aug 26, 2020. 
  2. "Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid) | NIDDK". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved Aug 26, 2020. 
  3. "Hashimoto's Thyroiditis". American Thyroid Association. Retrieved Aug 26, 2020. 
  4. Assaad, Samir Naeim; Meheissen, Marwa Ahmed; Elsayed, Eman Tayae; Alnakhal, Saher N.; Salem, Tarek M. (Mar 12, 2020). "Study of Epstein–Barr virus serological profile in Egyptian patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case-control study". Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology. 20. doi:10.1016/j.jcte.2020.100222. ISSN 2214-6237. PMC 7090364Freely accessible. PMID 32215255. 
  5. "SelfDecode | Blog". selfdecode.com. Retrieved Aug 26, 2020. 
  6. Tashiro, Ryosuke; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Khor, Seik-Soon; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Fujimura, Miki; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hidenori; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ogasawara, Koetsu (Aug 14, 2019). "Identification of HLA-DRB1*04:10 allele as risk allele for Japanese moyamoya disease and its association with autoimmune thyroid disease: A case-control study". PLOS ONE. 14 (8): e0220858. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220858. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6693760Freely accessible. PMID 31412073. 
  7. Caselli, Elisabetta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Roberta; Benedetti, Sabrina; Martorelli, Debora; Trasforini, Giorgio; Cassai, Enzo; degli Uberti, Ettore C.; Di Luca, Dario (Oct 4, 2012). "Virologic and Immunologic Evidence Supporting an Association between HHV-6 and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (10). doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002951. ISSN 1553-7366. PMC 3464215Freely accessible. PMID 23055929. 
  8. Sultanova, A.; Cistjakovs, M.; Gravelsina, S.; Chapenko, S.; Roga, S.; Cunskis, E.; Nora-Krukle, Z.; Groma, V.; Ventina, I.; Murovska, M. (Jan 2017). "Association of active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases". Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 23 (1): 50.e1–50.e5. doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2016.09.023. ISSN 1469-0691. PMID 27693656. 

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.