Streptococcus

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Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive bacterium[1][2] belonging to the phylum firmicutes and the order lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). Streptococcus is a d-lactic acid producing bacteria. Excessive production of d-lactic acid can lead to lactic acidosis.[citation needed]

Strep throat is caused by streptococcus.[3]

D-Lactic Acidosis[edit | edit source]

Streptococcus and Enterococcus are two aerobic Gram positive intestinal bacteria that produce D-lactate. Elevated levels of D-lactic acid can lead to Lactic acidosis, characterized by the buildup of lactic acid in the bloodstream.[3][4]

D-lactic acid bacteria linked to CFS symptoms[edit | edit source]

In a 2009 study, a significant increase of Gram positive facultative anaerobic faecal microorganisms were found in 108 CFS patients as compared to 177 control subjects, including Enterococcos faecalis and Streptococcus sanguinis.[4]

Results suggest that when Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. colonization in the intestinal tract is increased, the resulting excess D-lactic acid alters the pH and gut integrity, allowing the acid into the body. This in turn could explain neurocognitive and mitochondrial dysfunction symptoms in ME/CFS. [5]

In a 2018 study, antibiotic treatment was used to target the overgrowth of Streptococcus bacteria found in microbiota of ME/CFS patients. The idea was based on previous studies linking lactic acidosis and gut dysbiosis with symptoms of ME/CFS. And that d-lactic acid producing bacteria play a large role in both.

Results showed antimicrobial and probiotic treatment yielded concurrent reduction in enteric Streptococcus counts and improvement in some neurological symptoms.[6]

Guttate Psoriasis[edit | edit source]

Guttate psoriasis is a type of psoriasis that shows up on your skin as red, scaly, small, teardrop-shaped spots. Streptococcal infection is one of the most common triggers of guttate psoriasis, specifically group A streptococcus. [7]

In a large 2020 study, CFS patients with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) risk alleles were found to share the following autoimmune diseases, ordered by frequency:[8]

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis/hypothyreosis,
  2. Psoriasis
  3. Rheumatoid arthritis
  4. Alopecia areata
  5. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

Streptococcus and EBV Reactivation[edit | edit source]

Group A streptococci activate B cells via TLR2 and can trigger lytic reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tonsils. [9]

Learn more[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Streptococcal Infections - Infectious Diseases". MSD Manual Professional Edition. Retrieved Aug 23, 2020. 
  2. Patterson, Maria Jevitz (1996). Baron, Samuel, ed. "Streptococcus". Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. PMID 21413248. 
  3. 3.03.1 "Group A Strep | Strep Throat | For Clinicians | GAS | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Apr 19, 2019. Retrieved Aug 21, 2020. 
  4. 4.04.1 Sheedy, John R.; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Scanlon, Denis; Gooley, Paul R.; Lewis, Donald P.; Mcgregor, Neil; Stapleton, David I.; Butt, Henry L.; Meirleir, Kenny L. De (Jul 1, 2009). "Increased D-Lactic Acid Intestinal Bacteria in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". In Vivo. 23 (4): 621–628. ISSN 0258-851X. PMID 19567398. 
  5. Sheedy, John R.; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Scanlon, Denis; Gooley, Paul R.; Lewis, Donald P.; Mcgregor, Neil; Stapleton, David I.; Butt, Henry L.; Meirleir, Kenny L. De (Jul 1, 2009). "Increased D-Lactic Acid Intestinal Bacteria in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". In Vivo. 23 (4): 621–628. ISSN 0258-851X. PMID 19567398. 
  6. Wallis, Amy; Ball, Michelle; Butt, Henry; Lewis, Donald P.; McKechnie, Sandra; Paull, Phillip; Jaa-Kwee, Amber; Bruck, Dorothy (Feb 6, 2018). "Open-label pilot for treatment targeting gut dysbiosis in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: neuropsychological symptoms and sex comparisons". Journal of Translational Medicine. 16 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1392-z. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 5801817Freely accessible. PMID 29409505. 
  7. "Guttate psoriasis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved Aug 21, 2020. 
  8. Lande, Asgeir; Fluge, Øystein; Strand, Elin B.; Flåm, Siri T.; Sosa, Daysi D.; Mella, Olav; Egeland, Torstein; Saugstad, Ola D.; Lie, Benedicte A. (Mar 24, 2020). "Human Leukocyte Antigen alleles associated with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-62157-x. ISSN 2045-2322. 
  9. Ueda, Seigo; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Azzi, Tarik; Gysin, Claudine; Berger, Christoph; Bernasconi, Michele; Harabuchi, Yasuaki; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Nadal, David (Jan 15, 2014). "Oropharyngeal Group A Streptococcal Colonization Disrupts Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 209 (2): 255–264. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit428. ISSN 0022-1899. 

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From MEpedia, a crowd-sourced encyclopedia of ME and CFS science and history.